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The key-enabling technology relies on the revolutionary concept of VICE (Virtual mirror Cell). VICE transforms the electrophysiological activity of neurons and cardiomyocytes in light signals that can be monitored with simple optical cameras. VICE enables the accurate monitoring of neuro- and cardiotoxicity with high spatial resolution, minimal invasiveness, and from large populations of cells. 

Concept of the virtual mirror cell

Concept of the Virtual Mirror Cell. The action potentials of neurons and cardiomyocytes are responsible for the movement of charged fluorophores in the microfluidic chamber beneath the cell culture. The movement of the fluorophores is detected with high spatial resolution by a camera. A. Barbaglia et al., Advanced Materials, 2021 

A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of the mushroom‐like gold nanostructures for interfacing with cardiomyocytes and neurons.